second review session for exam 3

On Exam 3:
There will probably be a color the test tubes problem which deals with competitive or allosteric enzymes.
There will be a DNA replication/transcription/translation where you put steps in order and x the ones that don't apply. (like TATA box applies only to transcription and shine-delgarno sequences only applies to translation) Specific enzymes will be clues to what is being discussed. (like a RNA primase applies to transcription, but not translation.)

Topics of interest on Exam 3:
DNA replication, mutations (including, rate of, number of, kinds of, chromosomal trans-locations, why they happen-spontaneous, or induced, cells replicate faster, when they happen-when they replicate, gene expression-transcription/translation (you need to know specific enzymes to tell them apart), RNA processing-(prokaryotes don't) Eukaryotes=introns removed, poly-A tail, and mentholated cap.

If she ask you to transcibe something and its DNA then it is a prokaryote if its mRNA then the orgamism is eukaryotic.

in translation know, the role of the ribosome, mRNA, tRNA. there is a thought that in eukaryotes that there is one gene to one protein, but the frameshifting paper by Dinman says otherwise. there is not a 1 to 1 ratio there. questions over that paper could be on teh exam.

you need to know protein/enzyme structure. that when DNA is heated it just unzips, but when proteins are heated they are BROKEN. they don't work anymore.

there will be a summarize the abstract question, you will need to remember the scientific method and apply it probably in an experiment with good controls and specific testing ideas. Plus, you need to know the basics of what PCR is and how it works. all of these elements might be tied together in one question too.

There might be a differences/similarities question between prokaryote and eukaryote DNA replication. and also one about the different properties of RNA compared to DNA or visa versa.

the key thing to know is that there are envirnmental factors that change protein shapes when it comes to pH, osmolarity, temp, and such….

a mutations question will be about an amino acid sequence and what was its DNA template like the problems we have already worked on…only easier according to Dr. Robson.

Finally, the coloring page will probably be dinosaurs. :)

Hope this helps everyone….

Thank you so much!

Can someone explain the test tube thing. I didn't really understand when she was talking about it.

If a reaction occurs, then the test tube turns cloudy. If there's more inhibitor (competitive inhibitor) than substrate, then the reaction won't occur. If there's more substrate than inhibitor (competitive inhibitor) then a reaction will occur. If it's a noncompetitive inhibitor, the reaction will only occur in the negative control (enzyme and substrate, no inhibitor.)


Also, thank you!

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